Last post I looked at the way many adjectives can be closely mapped to corresponding adverbs, focusing on those which resulted in an adverb ending in -e.
In this post, I’ll cover the other category; those that result in an adverb ending in -o. As last time, I’ll quote examples of masculine adjective endings, but of course the same patterns apply for feminine and neuter versions.
Adverbs to end in -o
I’ll quote the full list of adjective endings which typically map to a adverb with -o, but effectively, it seems to be everything which isn’t in the list on the previous page for -e.
Soft endings: -ni, -pi, -wi, -si, -cy, -czy, -ży, -chy, -szy
The perennial special cases : -gi, -ki
And finally : -owy
As far as I can tell, there is only one common special change, where it’s not simply i to o, or y to o.
Some common examples
There is a special rule for colours, which also map to an adverb ending with -o. The preposition ‘na‘ is added to a colour in order for it to make sense as an adverb,
||in a dark colour
||in a bright colour
Adjectives and adverbs are a great example of knowing two words as a result of memorizing only one & the rules are largely consistent and predictable for what ending to apply.
Adverbs to end in -e
It seems typical to quote the adjectives in their masculine form for these mappings, so I’ll do likewise. But each of the endings below typically results in an adverb ending in -e, sometimes with other slight changes to the suffix.
- While -wy ⇒ -wie, this isn’t the case when the ending is -owy. They map to –owo.
- Colours. These also map to the -o ending.
- There are just some exceptions to every rule. Common ones that I’ve see so far include :
Next post, I’ll look at the other adverb suffix which I’ve mentioned in the exceptions, -o.
In Polish, you get used to changing the ending of adjectives to suit the gender of their associated noun. Numbers are similar, but fortunately only the first two, which makes life simpler! In the table below you can see that for one and two, the word changes for a Masculine, Neuter & Feminine noun. Whereas for three and greater, the word for the number is the same for all.
The other thing you might have noticed if you were paying attention, was that from five, the nouns change too. This is one of the rules for the Genitive (Dopełniacz) case coming in to play, where a quantity of five or more changes the case to Genitive. Well, mostly. Except where the number ends with the word dwa, trzy or cztery (ie, 22, 23, 24, 32, 33, 34, 42…). But that wasn’t the focus of this post and I’ll cover the rules for Genitive another day.
I’m sure you’re aware that basically as you change the case of a noun, you often need to change the ending of the word in some way.
There are dozens of rules about when and why (which I’ll have a go at simplifying some of in the future), but one example you see again and again is Pies (Dog), but it’s a strange one because in various cases Pies turns into Psa, Psy, Psu or Psów. Yet Kot (Cat) (which is another masculine animate noun) changes to Kota, Koty, Kotu, Kotów.
There are other words which do similar things, where some letters are removed before the ending is applied, but until today I hadn’t found anywhere that explained why these words were special, so I had them all lumped together as special nouns you had to memorize, but I really don’t like having to memorize more than necessary.
Today I found a book which gave me a rule to follow, which appears to hold true for lots of other nouns, so I wanted to share while it was fresh in my mind.
If the noun has an ‘e‘ or an ‘ie‘ in the last syllable, then remove it before adding the ending.
Examples of this pattern (with just the one other case to keep it simple)
Note this only applies (as far as I can tell) to Masculine Animate nouns, but at least it’s one more pattern and one less magic special case to remember.
In Polish, both ‘i’ and ‘a’ can be translated as ‘and‘… So which should you use?
i is used when you’re connecting similar things together or describing things which are happening at the same time.
Adam i Ewa mieszkają tutaj
Adam and Eve live here
Matka i córka są z Polski
The mother and daughter are from Poland
Jem i piję
I am eating and drinking
a is used when you’re contrasting things or emphasizing that things will happen at different times.
Matka jest z Polski, a córka jest z Włoch
The mother is from Poland and the daughter is from Italy
Jem, a potem będę pić
I am eating and then I will drink
You might also consider ‘a‘ as meaning ‘and/but‘ or ‘whereas‘ if that makes more sense to you.
One small thing worth noting is that ‘a‘ is always preceded by a comma, whereas ‘i‘ is not.
Very early in learning a language, you’re going to learn numbers and days of the week. If you’re going to memorize such things, you might as well get a few others words from the experience and help yourself remember which day is which.
||nie + dzieło (no + work)
||po + niedziałek (after + Sunday)
||wtórny (secondary) Second day after Sunday
||środek (middle) Middle of the week
||czwarty (fourth) Fourth day after Sunday
||piąty (fifth) Fifth day after Sunday
||seems derived from the word Sabbath or Shabbat